When you're preparing to pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, one of the biggest challenges is learning BGP. BGP is totally different from any protocol you learned to earn your CCNA certification, and one of the differences is that BGP uses path attributes to favor one path over another when multiple paths to or from a destination exist.

Notice I said "to or from". In earlier free BGP tutorials, I discussed the BGP attributes "weight" and "local preference". These attributes are used to favor one path to a destination over another; for example, if BGP AS 100 has two paths to a destination in AS 200, these two attributes can be set in AS 100 to favor one path over another. But what if AS 100 wants to inform the routers in AS 200 as to which path it should use to reach a given destination in AS 100?

That's where the BGP attribute "Multi-Exit Discriminator", or MED, comes in. The MED value can be set in AS 100 to tell AS 200 which path it should use to reach a given network in AS 100.

As with many BGP attributes, the MED can be set with a route-map. What you need to watch is that there is no "set med" value in route maps. To change the MED of a path, you need to change the metric of that path. Let's say that there are two entry paths for AS 200 to use to reach destinations in AS 100. You want AS 200 to use the path over the path. First, identify the two paths with two separate ACLs.

R1(config)#access-list 22 permit

R1(config)#access-list 23 permit

Next, write a route-map that assigns a lower metric to the more-desirable path.

R1(config)#route-map PREFER_PATH permit 10

R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 22

R1(config-route-map)#set metric 100

R1(config-route-map)#route-map PREFER_PATH permit 20

R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 23

R1(config-route-map)#set metric 250

Finally, apply the route-map to the neighbor or neighbors.

R1(config-route-map)#router bgp 100

R1(config-router)#neighbor route-map PREFER_PATH out

The key points to keep in mind is that while many BGP attributes prefer a higher value, the MED is basically an external metric - and a lower metric is preferred, just as with the protocols you've already studied to earn your CCNA certification.

So if you want to download game and movie for the PSP, you will find exactly what you need here. Sony's PSP, or Playstation Portable as it really is, is a wonderful piece of electronic equipment. It is compatible with many diverse types of media, as well as being a truly outstanding machine for gaming. A lot of people don't bother to get a PSP because of the expensive games and movies you need to buy for it, but it is possible, if you look in the right place, to pick up free game and movie for the PSP.

It is virtually common knowledge that you can use the internet to illegally download free games and movies for just about any format or game system, but it is not so well known that with the PSP, you can download free games and movies, and you can do it without breaking the law.

As you look around to try to download free game and movie for the PSP, you will usually encounter these different types of site:

A free download site. These free download sites allow you to download game and movie for the PSP, and a lot of other things as well. At first sight this seems like the answer to a game enthusiast's prayers, but it won't take long to find out that these sites are just an illusion. Most of the game and movie downloads are in a terrible condition. A good number of them won't even work, and even some of those that do will need working on. Added to this is the far more serious problem of potential danger to your computer, through viruses, trojans, and malware, and you will see that these sites are absolutely fraught with danger. As well as this, you will find that the PSP game and movie selection is very old, and you will understand why these sites are such a poor idea. You would do well to stay away from them completely.

A "free membership" service. These sites do genuinely offer you a free membership, and then they do give you access to the free game and movie downloads. What they don't bother to reveal is that each individual download has to be paid for. These sites are not honest and open about the fact that you are charged for each download. Apart from hiding their charges, these sites are not cheap anyway, so you are left wondering what exactly is the point of it all? You may as well purchase the game from an offline store, and get a disc and a box for it.

A genuine movie and game download site. These are the sites that are strongly recommended. When I first got my PSP a while ago I spent a long time just searching for a reliable, trustworthy, download site. It was very annoying at first, but now I've found some really good ones. The only slight negative factor is the upfront fee of around $30 to $40 you need to pay, but at least that is a one off. Once you have paid this once, you then have access to unlimited downloads. This system definitely works. Initially I was wary of the joining fee, but that has paid for itself many times over with all the game and movie for the PSP that I have downloaded. It is not always that easy to download MP4s from some of these sites, but a large number of the genuine ones will give you all of the software you need to get these kind of files onto your PSP.

It is my greatest hope that this guide to downloading game and movie for the PSP will prevent you from being swindled by the all too common disreputable sites. If you find a good genuine site and pay the initial joining fee, you will find that the investment will pay for itself many times over in the long run!

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To the information security professional wireless networking may be thought of as a four letter word to be avoided at all costs. Regardless of the security implication wireless networking can provide cost efficiency, and because of that wireless technologies are here to stay. While many in the profession believe that wireless networks can be easily compromised, this class will show how the appropriate wireless architecture with the proper security controls can make your wireless network as secure as any other remote access point into your network.

In this three day, wireless security workshop, we will examine the cutting edge of wireless technologies. The purpose of the course is to give you a full understanding of what wireless (802.11) networks are, how they work, how people find them and exploit them, and how they can be secured. This hands-on course is based on real world examples, solutions, and deployments. In this course we will actually set up and use wireless networks, determine the tools to uncover wireless networks, and also look at how to defeat the attempts to secure wireless networks.

Course Completion
Upon the completion of our CISM course, students will have:

Constructed a wireless network architecture
Install and configure 802.1x authentication using Microsoft Windows IAS and Server 2000
Install a wireless access point
Distinguish between 802.11x standards
Defeat Wired Equivalent Privacy
Key Take Aways:

An understanding of wireless networks
A CD of common tools and documentation
An ability to search the internet for updates and more information on wireless networks
Detail of Course Content The following topics will be covered:

Wireless History
Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals
WLAN Infrastructure
802.11 Network Architecture
802.1X Authentication
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)/(LEAP)/(PEAP)
Detection Platforms
WLAN Discovery Tools
Wireless Sniffers
Conventional Detection
Exploiting WLANs
Securing WLANs
Other Wireless Options
Legal Issues including GLBA and ISO-17799

More CCNA and CCNP candidates than ever before are putting together their own home practice labs. It's more affordable than it ever has been, and I receive emails daily from new CCNAs and CCNPs who say it's the best thing they could have done to improve their studies.

There are some commands you can configure on your lab routers that won't necessarily be on your CCNA or CCNP exams, but they will make life a lot easier for you. Let's take a look at just a few of these.

The command "no exec" is short, yet powerful. Occasionally you'll have what is referred to as a "rogue EXEC" process tie up a line, and you end up having to continually clear lines, which disrupts your practice. If you have an access server, I highly recommend you configure this command on your lines, as shown here:

ACCESS_SERVER(con)#line 1 8

ACCESS_SERVER(con)#no exec

From your CCNA studies, you know that the command "no ip domain-lookup" prevents a Cisco router from sending a broadcast to find a DNS server anytime you enter something that is not an IOS command - and that includes mistyped commands, which happens to all of us sooner or later. Make sure to run that command in global configuration mode on all your practice routers.

There are two commands I like to configure on the console line on all my practice routers and switches. The first is "exec-timeout 0 0", which prevents you from being kicked out of enable mode and back into user exec after a few minutes of inactivity. (This doesn't sound like much, but you'll get pretty tired of typing "enable" after a while.) The first zero refers to minutes, the second zero to seconds. Setting them both to zero disables the exec-timeout function.

The second command prevents the router from interrupting the command you're typing with a console message. If you've ever been in the middle of typing a router command and suddenly you're interrupted with a logging message, you know that can be pretty annoying. We don't want the router to not display the message, but we do want the router to wait until we're done entering data. The command to perform this is "logging synchronous".

R1(config)#line console 0

R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 0 0

R1(config-line)#logging synchronous

You won't see many of these commands on your exams, but after you configure them on your home lab devices, you'll wonder how you did without them!

Relax. You're not having a flashback. Retro video game systems have made a massive resurgence in recent years, likely due to the fact that some kids never grow up. There seems to be a real affection among the techno-geeks out there for the original gaming systems. A cursory search of the internet will yield hundreds of results for websites dedicated to retro gaming. These systems were all the rage back in the day, and it appears that their time has come again.

Back when I was a young boy, these gaming systems were like a gift from the heavens. The only way I was able to play video games was to go downtown to the arcade. This posed a significant problem, as my parents were not too keen on the idea of letting me go downtown by myself. Furthermore, the local arcade tended to attract some shady characters. I skipped school one afternoon and went down to play Ms. Pac-Man, but I got caught by a truant officer. After that incident, my parents were only too eager to buy me the new Atari.

Man, I loved that system. The Atari 2600 had all the best games. Asteroids was, by far, my favorite game. Dude, I could play that game forever. Or so it seemed. What about Pitfall? I loved that game, too. Then, Kung-Fu Master came out! I don't think I left my bedroom for a month. At the time, I swore I wouldn't sleep until I rescued the fair Princess Victoria. Damn those knife throwers! To this day, my parents still blame that game for the decline in my grades that semester.

By the time the home video game market bottomed out in 1984, I had amassed a rather large collection of games. I sort of lost interest in video games around that time. I ended up giving my Atari and all of the games to my kid brother. I didn't play it much anymore, and I was too busy trying to get a girlfriend. In retrospect, I wish I had kept that system. I would love to spend an evening playing Space Invaders! Maybe I'll see if that arcade is still open. I wonder if girls ever go there……

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So you have a podcast. That's great, but don't quit your day job just yet. Unfortunately, unless you're Ricky Gervais it might be more than just a little difficult to make money off podcasting. If you are Ricky Gervais: A.) Can I borrow some money? B.) Can I guest star on the new video podcast?

So why aren't there more podcast millionaires? Most podcasts don't have the audience necessary to generate any significant ad revenue. The other problem being that as podcasting grows, so do the number of shows targeting the same audience. The larger and more successful podcasts can generate revenue by charging subscription fees for their shows, or even by charging for the back catalogue of shows. Even amongst the larger corporations, excepting The Wall Street Journal, and Consumer Reports, most haven't been able to sell enough subscriptions to their web-based content to be anywhere close to profitable. Apparently just having a recognizable brand isn't enough to sell subscriptions alone.

The key is finding ways to make podcasts engaging, and effective. Right now businesses are using podcasting as a marketing tool to attract clients in much the same way that blogs lead to exposure for other businesses. There is no reason that podcasts can't generate revenue. For example if you host a show on llama herding, it's possible (although not probable) that 2,000 llama herding enthusiasts might subscribe. If you have a large niche marketing then advertising might work for you. Who's to say that if an enterprising podcaster rounded up an audience of 7,000 listeners interested in basket weaving, then why wouldn't a basket weaving company want to advertise to that audience? The key is finding a podcast with quality content and advertisers who need to reach that specific audience. What is needed essentially is a matchmaker of sorts to help the shows and advertisers find one another.

The other problem is getting web users to find and subscribe to podcasts. While it may seem like just about everyone knows about podcasting the truth is that there is a good majority of people who still haven't. In an interview last year Yahoo Chief Products Officer Geoff Ralston pointed this particular problem out. "…the fact is that what we really want to do at Yahoo is to bring podcasting to the mainstream, and for that to happen people have to learn about it. So we've created a site where it's really easy to learn about it, and like I said, you'll be able to find podcasts eventually everywhere on Yahoo. So as you're reading your news, which of course many millions of people do every day week, and month on Yahoo, you will start to be introduced to podcasts and start to be introduced to the podcast experience of the site and that will actually start to bring you into the community of podcasters. And it is a community! One of the key aspects of Yahoo Podcasts is that the community is what gives it strength and gives the feeling of the site. The site also allows people to rate podcasts to create the ability for people to find the podcasts that matter."

Podcasting is still a new medium and so there's plenty of room for growth and change. The real key to making money with podcasting is finding a way to use traditional methods of generating revenue along side newer methods. The key in a young industry, like podcasting, is experimenting with different methods, not being afraid to adapt new business models, or even inventing your own. So Ricky Gervais may have an easier time making money at it, but that's not to say that it's impossible for anyone else.

Potential customers are looking for you through search engines, directories and forums. We help them find your website. How? Check out our marketing techniques at http://www.itsontarget.com and sign up for our podcast and we'll let you in on some interesting internet traffic solutions.

BCMSN exam success and earning your CCNP certification requires you to add to your knowledge of VLAN configuration. When you studied for your CCNA exam, you learned how to place ports into a VLAN and what the purpose of VLANs was, but you may not be aware that there are two types of VLAN membership. To pass the BCMSN exam, you must know the details of both types.

In this tutorial, we'll take a look at the VLAN type you are most familiar with, the "static VLAN". As you know, VLANs are a great way to create smaller broadcast domains in your network. Host devices connected to a port belonging to one VLAN will receive broadcasts and multicasts only if they were originated by another host in that same VLAN. The drawback is that without the help of a Layer 3 switch or a router, inter-VLAN communication cannot occur.

The actual configuration of a static VLAN is simple enough. In this example, by placing switch ports 0/1 and 0/2 into VLAN 12, the only broadcasts and multicasts hosts connected to those ports will receive are the ones transmitted by ports in VLAN 12.

SW1(config)#int fast 0/1

SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access

SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12

% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 12

SW1(config-if)#int fast 0/2

SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access

SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12

One of the many things I love about Cisco switches and routers is that if you have forgotten to do something, the Cisco device is generally going to remind you or in this case actually do it for you. I placed port 0/1 into a VLAN that did not yet exist, so the switch created it for me!

There are two commands needed to place a port into a VLAN. By default, these ports are running in dynamic desirable trunking mode, meaning that the port is actively attempting to form a trunk with a remote switch in order to send traffic between the two switches. The problem is that a trunk port belongs to all VLANs by default, and we want to put this port into a single VLAN only. To do so, we run the switchport mode access command to make the port an access port, and access ports belong to one and only one VLAN. After doing that, we placed the port into VLAN 12 with the switchport access vlan 12 command. Running the switchport mode access command effectively turns trunking off on that port.

The hosts are unaware of VLANs; they simply assume the VLAN membership of the port they're connected to. But that's not quite the case with dynamic VLANs, which we'll examine in the next part of this BCMSN tutorial.

The Computer is a very complicated device we use for our every day comfort and the importance of some of its numerical aspects is sometimes neglected. For example: a different number is given to each computer when its user goes online or when it is part of a network. This number is the IP address and knowing about it is like knowing where you live…

What's my IP and what do its numbers stand for?
IP stands for Internet Protocol and the address is formed from 4 numbers separated by periods. The IP address format is a 32 bit numeric one and each number can be from 0 to 255. The IP address consists of two parts: first one represent the network number and it is similar for more than one user (like the number of a street) and second represents the host name which is different for each user (like the house number). To increase the number of available IP addresses within big networks with a lot of users or small networks with few hosts, the address is divided into 4 classes (A, B, C, and D)

Having an IP address it's like having a last name in a network. To identify a computer in a network (LAN-local area network, WAN-wide area network or on the Internet) it has to have an IP address. This number is similar to a phone number or to a zip code. It is unique and without it the device or computer can not be used in a network area. Within an isolated network the computers can be assigned different random IP addresses, but if a private network needs to be connected to the Internet the IP has to be registered so that its uniqueness is verified

Where do I find my IP address?
Connect to a site that recognizes your IP address and let you see it also. You can visit this site for example: iprelated.com. These IP Lookup sites are very easy to use and very useful for others. An IP address can offer a lot information about the person who logs in on the Internet and engages in a certain activity.
This is how illegal activity is sometimes detected and violations are reported. The IP address says less about the user if it is a dynamic one because it changes every time the user logs in.
Another interesting aspect is that some people who have the information from your IP address are interested in taking you computer over and using its resources. This is not impossible! They can use software that enables them to do this so it is better to hide your IP when you are online.

Who gives me my IP address?
The IP address can be static or dynamic, meaning it can be the same every time you are online or it can change. The IP address is provided by a server through a service called DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

Certain groups in society have attached a negative stigma to pornography which has made people feel guilty about enjoying it. Sexuality is a very natural process and should be welcomed by people, not shunned. It is unclear when exactly sexuality began being viewed as something that should be hidden and ticked away, but we do know that some people still view it this way. Video on demand adult films encourages people to be comfortable with their sexuality and to explore their bodies. The best part about video on demand is that you can stay in your own home and have a feeling of privacy while you experiment.

Video on demand adult films are a great thing to put on your computer or television as you are warming up and preparing for an intimate experience, whether it be by yourself or with your partner. If you are thinking about having a sexual experience that may be making you nervous or tense, then ordering a video on demand adult movie is a good way to relax. Often times, when a partner wants to have sexual intercourse for the first time or anal sex; it creates a lot of unnecessary stress and nerves. This would be a perfect time to have something to help them out, a way to relax and be confident with their body and sexuality.

This is why video on demand is so popular; it gives people that sense of freedom that they cannot find with anything else. When you feel you cannot talk to anyone about it or that it may be too personal to share, this is a perfect thing to be able to turn to for help. Not everyone is sexually adventurous, but with a video on demand adult film you can live the sensual lifestyle that you never thought was possible.

Arthroscopy (pronounced ahr-THROS-kuh-pee) is a technique of using another medical instrument called the Arthroscope. This instrument is straight and cylinder-like with a series of lenses and optic fiber bundles that come in sizes of 1/12 to 1/5 inch (2 to 5 millimeters.) The Arthroscope is used to examine a joint in a body, such as knee joints, ankles, elbows, hips and shoulders. This is done by the Arthroscope being inserted into a joint of the body through a small incision. A light is then transmitted by the use of the optic fibers to the tip of the Arthroscope to illuminate the joint. The use of optic fiber through the Arthroscope enables a physician to thoroughly examine a joint for diagnosis or treatment.

Optic fibers used in the Arthroscope can be used to measure temperature and other bodily
attributes as well as being used in performing surgical procedures. The problem most commonly treated by Arthroscopy is torn cartilage in the knee. This is when a small incision is made at the joint for use of the optic fiber in the Arthroscope and then a second incision is made for the use of other surgical instruments to remove the cartilage. The primary advantage of using optic fibers through Arthroscopic surgery is that the operation can be performed through a small incision, resulting in the patient experiencing the least amount of discomfort and a healing time that is much shorter, when compared to the other methods of surgery.

Aside from the uses of the Endoscopes and the Arthroscopes, another widely used function of optic fibers in the medical field is the ability for the optical fibers to be inserted into blood vessels to give a quick and accurate analysis of blood chemistry. Physicians have also found medical use of the optical fibers to direct intense laser light at a wound to stop bleeding or to burn away abnormal tissue. Fiber optic training is necessary in the field of medicine. The use of optic fiber through medical science continues to grow rapidly to everyday to develop more new and advanced medical devices to enable physicians to provide people with better service.