o Intent of this file:

This phile is geared as an UNIX tutorial at first, to let you get more
familiar with the operating system. UNIX is just an operating system, as
is MS-DOS, AppleDOS, AmigaDOS, and others. UNIX happens to be a multi-user-
multi-tasking system, thus bringing a need for security not found on MSDOS,
AppleDOS, etc. This phile will hopefully teach the beginners who do not have
a clue about how to use UNIX a good start, and may hopefully teach old pros
something they didn't know before. This file deals with UNIX SYSTEM V and
its variants. When I talk about unix, its usually about SYSTEM V (rel 3.2).

Where Can I be found? I have no Idea. The Boards today are going Up'n'Down
so fast, 3 days after you read this file, if I put a BBS in it where you could
reach me, it may be down! Just look for me.

I can be reached on DarkWood Castle [If it goes back up], but that board
is hard to get access on, but I decided to mention it anyway.

I *COULD* Have been reached on jolnet, but......

This file may have some bad spelling, etc, or discrepencies since it was
spread out over a long time of writing, because of school, work, Girl friend,
etc. Please, no flames. If you don't like this file, don't keep it.

This is distributed under PHAZE Inc. Here are the members (and ex ones)
The Dark Pawn
The Data Wizard
Sir Hackalot (Me)
Taxi (ummm.. Busted)
Lancia (Busted)
The British Knight (Busted)
The Living Pharoah (Busted)


o Dedication:
This phile is dedicated to the members of LOD that were raided in
Atlanta. The members that got busted were very good hackers, especially
The Prophet. Good luck to you guys, and I hope you show up again somewhere.

o A little History, etc:

UNIX, of course, was invented By AT&T in the 60's somewhere, to be
"a programmer's operating system." While that goal was probably not reached
when they first invented UNIX, it seems that now, UNIX is a programmer's OS.
UNIX, as I have said before, is a multi-tasking/multi-user OS. It is also
written in C, or at least large parts of it are, thus making it a portable
operating system. We know that MSDOS corresponds to IBM/clone machines,
right? Well, this is not the case with UNIX. We do not associate it with
any one computer since it has been adapted for many, and there are many
UNIX variants [that is, UNIX modified by a vendor, or such]. Some AT&T
computers run it, and also some run MSDOS [AT&T 6300]. The SUN workstations
run SunOS, a UNIX variant, and some VAX computers run Ultrix, a VAX version
of UNIX. Remember, no matter what the name of the operating system is [BSD,
UNIX,SunOS,Ultrix,Xenix, etc.], they still have a lot in common, such as the
commands the operating system uses. Some variants may have features others
do not, but they are basically similar in that they have a lot of the same
commands/datafiles. When someone tries to tell you that UNIX goes along with
a certain type of computer, they may be right, but remember, some computers
have more than one Operating system. For instance, one person may tell you
that UNIX is to a VAX as MSDOS is to IBM/clones. That is untrue, and the
only reason I stated that, was because I have seen many messages with info
/comparisons in it like that, which confuse users when they see a VAX running

o Identifying a Unix/Logging in

From now on, I will be referring to all the UNIX variants/etc as
UNIX, so when I say something about UNIX, it generally means all the variants
(Unix System V variants that is: BSD, SunOS, Ultrix, Xenix, etc.), unless
I state a variant in particular.

Okay. Now its time for me to tell you how a unix USUALLY greets you.
First, when you call up a UNIX, or connect to one however you do, you will
usually get this prompt:


Ok. Thats all fine and dandy. That means that this is PROBABLY a Unix,
although there are BBS's that can mimic the login procedure of an OS
(Operating System), thus making some people believe its a Unix. [Hah!].
Some Unixes will tell you what they are or give you a message before a
login: prompt, as such:

Welcome to SHUnix. Please log in.


Or something like that. Public access Unixes [like Public BBSs] will
tell you how to logon if you are a new users. Unfortunatly, this phile is
not about public access Unixes, but I will talk about them briefly later, as
a UUCP/UseNet/Bitnet address for mail.
OK. You've gotten to the login prompt! Now, what you need to do
here is enter in a valid account. An Account usually consists of 8 characters
or less. After you enter in an account, you will probably get a password
prompt of some sort. The prompts may vary, as the source code to the login
program is usually supplied with UNIX, or is readily available for free.
Well, The easiest thing I can say to do to login is basically this:
Get an account, or try the defaults. The defaults are ones that came with
the operating system, in standard form. The list of some of the Defaults
are as follows:

------- --------
root root - Rarely open to hackers
sys sys / system / bin
bin sys / bin
mountfsys mountfsys
adm adm
uucp uucp
nuucp anon
anon anon
user user
games games
install install
reboot * See Below
demo demo
umountfsys umountfsys
sync sync
admin admin
guest guest
daemon daemon